A prognostic approach towards Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy-Scientific Conference Bangalore
Type 2 Diabetic retinopathy (T2DR) is a serious sight-threatening disease and the leading cause of blindness among people with diabetes. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which play a key role in controlling gene expression and certain biological processes. Studies show that dysregulation of microRNAs may lead to various diseases including T2DR, and thus, may be useful biomarkers for disease detection. Therefore, identifying biomarkers like microRNAs as a tool for the early and specific detection of T2DR, have great potential for diagnostic purposes. The main focus of this investigation, therefore, was the early detection of T2DR by analysing microRNA-15a and its potential target gene Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) associated with the onset and progression of T2DR. An in silico approach was used to analyse regulation of BDNF expression by microRNA-15a in retina of Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy patients. Publically available target prediction software were used for miRNA-15a target genes prediction and binding site analysis. Gene network enrichment analysis and functional annotation of microRNA-15a target genes which play role in of T2DR predicted the linkage, pathway and functional similarity between BDNF and other genes, using a web-based software namely STRING, EnrichNet and DAVID. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway enrichment analysis to predict the changes occurring in the pathway when BDNF gets dysregulated, using SignaLink and KEGG Pathway database for the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy. Based on the bioinformatics results, this investigation predicted the regulation of BDNF expression by microRNA-15a which seemed to be one of the most promising miRNA for biomarker validation, due to the function of the target genes being associated with T2DR onset and progression. Future work, therefore, include validation of this prediction, using molecular approaches such as Quantitative Real-Time PCR, luciferase assays and western blots.